Bibliography & Glossary

Barbizon – nineteenth century interpretation of the Louis XIV style.
It is noted for its stylized floral elements and convex panel. Bolection
– a reverse ogee molding that curves up away from the artwork and then back to the wall.

Carlo Maratta – popular in late eighteenth century and America,
it has a sweeping top edge and uses elements such as leaf and tongue, ribbon and stick, leaf and shield and pearls or beads. Also known as the Salvator Rosa style.

Cassetta (Box) – this style dates from the Italian Renaissance. The word cassetta literally means 'little box' and refers to the molding profile that features a predominant flat section flanked by a raised back edge and sight edge.

Cole style – Thomas Cole designed his own frames which were influenced by contemporary English forms. By the use of molded compo, these frames were decorated with naturalistic foliate patterns and highly ornamented corners.

Eastlake – a style named after the English architect Charles Eastlake. These frames are of a simple design and incorporated black lacquer panels with incised corner decorations between the inner and outer gilded bands
of ornamentation.

Empire – emerging from France during the beginning decades of the nineteenth century, these frames featured a low relief design with natural ornamentation such as anthemion as well as palmettes, cornucopia and flowers and tendrils.

Federal – a style popular in the early decades of the nineteenth century with an emphasis on neo-classical elements.

Folk-frames – were generally of a simple design and featured painted surfaces. They were often used by folk artists and itinerant portrait painters.

Gilded oak – frames where gold is directly applied to an oak panel without the use of gesso. The result shows the wood grain texture.
Harer, Frederick – Frederick Harer of Bucks County, Pennsylvania carved frames that showcased his woodworking talents. His use of stencilling, incising, decoration and gilding have made his frames noteworthy.

Mathews, A&L – Arthur and Lucia Mathews were California artists influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement. Their frames incorporated architectural elements and used techniques of painted surfaces, inlay and low relief carving.

Murphy, Hermann Dudley – The painter Hermann Dudley Murphy created distinctive hand carved and gilded frames during the early years of the twentieth century. Rejecting compo ornamentation, his carved and gilded frame designs combine an elegance of design and simplicity of form.

Prendergast, Charles (brother of Maurice) – his hand carved frames reflect his interest in Chinese and Persian art. His skill in carving and gilding was evident by the number of frames he created for the Armory Show of 1913 and a group commissioned for the Barnes Collection.

Pre-Raphaelite – similar in aspects to Whistler frames,the Pre-Raphaelites created frames with a flat reeded border inset with decorative squares at the corners and rondels on the sides.

Rococo Revival – a re-interpretation of frames from the Baroque period in France by the Americans in the mid- nineteenth century. There was elaborate ornamentation such as clusters, vines and sand texture done in molded compo on these frames. These frames, with their naturalistic elements, were favored by the artists of the Hudson River School.

Tabernacle – inspired by classical architecture the frame features an entablature supported by columns on a base or predella Sully- these frames are associated with the painter Thomas Sully who often chose this type for his paintings. It has a forty-five degree angled bevel that slopes toward the painting and generally has little or no ornamentation.

Western – these frames incorporate Native American motifs into their design and were favored in particular by the artist community in Taos, New Mexico in the early decades of the twentieth century.

Whistler – a style made popular by the artist James McNeill Whistler. These frames consist of bands of reeded molding that are carved and gilded.

White, Stanford – famous American architect of the late nineteenth century who designed frames for his many artist friends. Based on Italian Renaissance motifs, his frames have a classical design both refined and intricate.